Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors
A person with Shy-Drager syndrome has an abnormally functioning
autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls many
involuntary functions of the body, including blood pressure and heart rate.
What is going on in the body?
Shy-Drager syndrome is somewhat similar to Parkinson's disease, but causes more
extensive damage in the body. There is widespread degeneration of many parts
of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary activities of the
body such as blood pressure.
What are the causes and risks of the disease?
The exact cause of Shy-Drager
syndrome is not known. It is more common in people older than 60 years and
occurs more frequently in males.
Symptoms & Signs
What are the signs and symptoms of the disease?
Symptoms of Shy-Drager syndrome can include:
dizziness and fainting
low blood pressure
tremors, or small involuntary muscle movements
muscle rigidity or muscle aches
urinary incontinence, or loss of bladder control
gait changes, which are changes in how the person walks
changes in facial expression
difficulty swallowing and
confusion, dementia, or
Diagnosis & Tests
How is the disease diagnosed?
The first step in the diagnosis of
Shy-Drager syndrome is a complete medical history and full neurologic exam.
The healthcare provider may then order tests, such as:
an electroencephalogram, or EEG to study the electrical pathways in the brain
cranial CT scan to check for
abnormalities in the brain structures
blood and urine tests to measure levels of chemicals involved in nerve
The healthcare provider will also check the person's vital signs, such as pulse and blood pressure. These findings are often abnormal in a person with
Shy-Drager syndrome. Orthostatic
hypotension, which is an inability to maintain an adequate blood
pressure while changing body positions, will be present in someone with
Shy-Drager syndrome. Orthostatic hypotension can cause dizziness,
fainting, and injury.
Prevention & Expectations
What can be done to prevent the disease?
There is no known way to prevent Shy-Drager syndrome.
What are the long-term effects of the disease?
A person with Shy-Drager syndrome may experience a progressive loss of ability in walking and other motor functions.
What are the risks to others?
Shy-Drager syndrome is not transmitted from one person to another. It does not appear to be an inherited disorder.
Treatment & Monitoring
What are the treatments for the disease?
Because there is no known cure, treatments are used to control the symptoms of Shy-Drager syndrome. Medication can be given to raise blood pressure in an
individual with low blood pressure. Anticholinergic medications may be given
to help reduce the tremors. A pacemaker can be inserted to control the heart rate as needed.
What are the side effects of the treatments?
Side effects vary depending on the medications used, but may include dizziness, dry mouth, and allergic reactions.
What happens after treatment for the disease?
As Shy-Drager syndrome progresses, the person may experience a decreased ability to walk, increasing falls, and side effects from medications.
How is the disease monitored?
A person with Shy-Drager
syndrome will need ongoing monitoring by the healthcare provider. The provider can watch for any changes in neurological status and treat symptoms as they occur. Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the healthcare provider.