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Medical Dictionary     J
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  • J
    Symbol for coupling constant.
  • J chain
  • J point
    the point marking the end of the QRS complex and the beginning of the S or T wave in the electrocardiogram.

    Alternate names: ST junction

  • Jüngling disease
  • j-g complex
  • J-sella deformity
    pear-shaped or J-shaped deformity of sella turcica caused by increased pressure on growing sphenoid bone; noted in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.
  • Jaboulay pyloroplasty
    a side-to-side gastroduodenostomy, useful when the pylorus and proximal duodenum are extensively scarred or indurated by peptic ulcer disease.
  • Jaccoud arthritis
  • jacket
    A fixed bandage applied around the body to immobilize the spine. In dentistry, a term commonly used in reference to an artificial crown composed of fired porcelain or acrylic resin.
  • jacket crown
    a hollow crown of acrylic resin, fused porcelain or cast gold, combinations of gold and acrylic or gold and porcelain; it fits over the prepared stump of the natural crown.
  • jackscrew
    A threaded device used in appliances for the separation of approximated teeth or jaws.
  • Jackson law
    loss of mental functions due to disease retraces in reverse order its evolutionary development.
  • Jackson rule
    after an epileptic attack, simple and quasiautomatic functions are less affected and more rapidly recovered than the more complex ones.
  • Jackson sign
    during quiet respiration the movement of the paralyzed side of the chest may be greater than that of the opposite side, whereas in forced respiration the paralyzed side moves less than the other.
  • Jacksonian seizure

    Jacksonian seizure: Epilepsy with clonic movements (spasms) in muscles on one side marching systematically through adjacent muscle groups. Named for London neurologist John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911).

  • Jacobaeus operation
    obsolete term for pleurolysis.
  • Jacobson reflex
    flexion of the fingers elicited by tapping the flexor tendons over the wrist joint or the lower end of the radius.
  • Jacquart facial angle
    a facial angle with the intersection always at the nasal spine point.

    See Also: ophryospinal angle

  • Jacquemin test
    a test for phenol; to the suspected fluid an equal amount of aniline is added, and, after thorough admixture, a little solution of sodium hypochlorite; if phenol is present the fluid becomes blue.
  • Jacques plexus
    a nerve plexus within the muscular coat of the uterine (fallopian) tube.
  • Jadassohn-Lewandowski Syndrome

    Jadassohn-Lewandowski Syndrome: This syndrome is a form of what is called elephant nails from birth (pachyonychia congenita). The characteristic features include: Abnormally thick curved nails (onychogryposis) Thickening of the skin (hyperkeratosis) of the palms, soles, knees and elbows White plaques (leukoplakia) in the mouth Excess sweating (hyperhidrosis) of the hands and feet Teeth are already erupted at birth (natal teeth) Generation after generation in a family may show the syndrome. It is an autosomal dominant trait. The gene responsible for the syndrome is on chromosome 12 (in band 12q13) and a single copy of the gene (named PD1) is capable of causing the disease. The basic abnormality is a mutation (change) in a gene for keratin, a primary constituent of nails, hair, and skin. Alternate names for the syndrome include pachyonychia congenita of the Jadassohn-Lewandowski type and pachyonychia congenita with natal teeth and type 1 pachyonychia congenita. The syndrome is named for the professor of dermatology at the University of Bern in Switzerland, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936), and his colleague, Felix Lewandowski (1879- 1921), who first described the syndrome in 1906. About their patient, a 15-year-old girl, they wrote: "The nail plates of all the fingers and toes are extremely thickened, and so hard that they cannot be cut with a scissors; the father has to trim them with a hammer and chisel."

  • Jadassohn-Pellizzari anetoderma
    cutaneous atrophy preceded by inflammatory erythematous or urticarial lesions of the trunk and upper portions of the extremities, and enlarging to 2–3 cm before undergoing involution.
  • Jaeger test types
    type of different sizes used for testing the acuity of near vision.
  • Jaffe reaction
    a bright orange-red complex resulting from the treatment of creatinine with alkaline picrate solution; the basis of most routine creatinine tests.

    See Also: Jaffe test

  • Jaffe test
    a quantitative test for creatinine based on its reaction with alkaline picrate; a qualitative test for the presence of indicanuria; after an equal amount of HCl is added to the urine, the further addition of chloroform and CaCl2 gives rise to blue or purple chloroform droplets that sink to the bottom if indican is present.

    See Also: Jaffe reaction

  • Jaffe-Lichtenstein disease
    obsolete term for fibrous dysplasia of bone.
  • Jahnke syndrome
    Sturge-Weber syndrome without glaucoma.
  • Jail fever

    Jail fever: Epidemic typhus, a severe acute (sudden-onset) infectious disease with prolonged high fever up to 40? C (104? F), intractable headache, and a pink-to-red raised rash. The cause is a microorganism called Rickettsia prowazekii. It is found worldwide and is transmitted by lice. The lice become infected on typhus patients and transmit illness to other people. The mortality increases with age and over half of untreated persons age 50 or more die. Also called European, classic, or louse-borne typhus.

  • JAK
    Abbreviation for Janus kinase.
  • jake paralysis
    polyneuropathy produced by drinking synthetic Jamaican ginger (or “jake” in the vernacular) containing triorthocresylphosphate.

    Alternate names: ginger paralysis

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