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Medical Dictionary     E
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  • E
    Symbol for elementary charge; base of natural, or Napierian, logarithms (2.71828...). It is the limit of 1 + (1/n!).
  • E rosette
    the adherence of erythrocytes to cells. Sheep erythrocytes will adhere spontaneously to human T cells, forming rosettes.
  • E selectin
    cell surface receptor produced by endothelium.
  • E-LAM
    Abbreviation for endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule.
  • E-rosette test
    a test to identify T lymphocytes by mixing purified blood lymphocytes with serum and sheep erythrocytes; rosettes of erythrocytes form around human T lymphocytes on incubation.
  • E-selectin
    cell surface receptor produced by endothelium.
  • E. coli

    E. coli: Short for Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally resides in the human colon. E. coli has been studied intensively in genetics and molecular and cell biology because of its availability, its small genome size, its normal lack of pathogenicity (disease-causing ability), and its ease of growth in the laboratory.

  • E0+
    Symbols for oxidation-reduction potential
  • E1
    Symbol for estrone.
  • E2
    Symbol for estradiol.
  • Ea
    Abbreviation for energy of activation.
  • EAC rosette
    indicates the presence of complement receptors. Erythrocytes (E) coated with antibody (A) and complement (C) are incubated with test cells; if the test cells have complement receptors, the EAC will adhere to these cells, forming rosettes.
  • Eadie-Hofstee plot
    a graphic representation of enzyme kinetic data in which velocities, v, are plotted on the vertical axis as a function of the v:[S] ratio on the horizontal axis. On occasion, these axes are reversed. Sometimes referred to as the Eadie-Augustinsson plot or Woolf-Eadie-Augustinsson-Hofstee plot.
  • EAE
    Abbreviation for experimental allergic encephalitis; experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
  • Eagle basal medium
    a solution of various salts containing 13 naturally occurring amino acids, several vitamins, two antibiotics, and phenol red; used as a tissue culture medium.
  • Eagle minimum essential medium
    a tissue culture medium similar to Eagle basal medium but with different amounts and a few exclusions (antibiotics and phenol red).
  • Eagle syndrome

    Eagle syndrome: Inflammation of the styloid process, a spike-like projection sticking off the base of the skull. The tissues in the throat rub on this structure during the act of swallowing causing pain. The diagnosis of Eagle syndrome is made by history and an x-ray showing the abnormal styloid process. Anti-inflammatory drugs are the first line of treatment although surgical removal of the styloid process may be needed.

  • EAHF complex
    a combination of allergies consisting of eczema, asthma and hay fever.
  • Eales disease
    peripheral retinal periphlebitis causing recurrent retinal or intravitreous hemorrhages in young adults.
  • Ear

    Ear: The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the outer ear (the part we see along the sides of our head behind the temples), the middle ear, and the inner ear. But in terms of function, the ear has four parts: those three and the brain. Hearing thus involves all parts of the ear as well as the auditory cortex of the brain. The external ear helps concentrate the vibrations of air on the ear drum and make it vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted by a chain of little bones in the middle ear to the inner ear. There they stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain. �The outer ear looks complicated but it is the simplest part of the ear. It consists of the pinna or auricle (the visible projecting portion of the ear), the external acoustic meatus (the outside opening to the ear canal), and the external ear canal that leads to the ear drum. In sum, there is the pinna, the meatus and the canal. That's all. And the external ear has only to concentrate air vibrations on the ear drum and make the drum vibrate. �The middle ear consists of the ear drum (the tympanum or tympanic membrane) and, beyond it, a cavity. This cavity is connected via a canal (the Eustachian tube) to the pharynx (the nasopharynx). The Eustachian tube permits the gas pressure in the middle ear cavity to adjust to external air pressure (so, as you're descending in a plane, it's the Eustachian tube that opens when your ears "open").) The middle ear cavity also contains a chain of 3 little bones (ossicles) that connect the ear drum to the internal ear. The ossicles are named (not the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria but) the malleus, incus, and stapes. In sum, the middle ear communicates with the pharynx, equilibrates with external pressure and transmits the ear drum vibrations to the inner ear. �The internal ear is highly complex. The essential component of the inner ear for hearing is the membranous labyrinth where the fibers of the auditory nerve (the nerve connecting the ear to the brain) end. The membranous labyrinth is a system of communicating sacs and ducts (tubes) filled with fluid (the endolymph). The membranous labyrinth is lodged within a cavity called the bony labyrinth. At some points the membranous labyrinth is attached to the bony labyrinth and at other points the membraneous labyrinth is suspended in a fluid (the perilymph) within the bony labyrinth. The bony labyrinth has three parts: a central cavity (the vestibule), semicircular canals (which open into the vestible) and the cochlea (a snail-shaped spiral tube). The membranous labyrinth also has a vestibule which consists of two sacs (called the utriculus and sacculus) connected by a narrow tube. The utriculus, the larger of the two sacs, is the principal organ of the vestibular system (which informs us about the position and movement of the head). The smaller of the two sacs, the sacculus (literally, the little sac) is connected with a membranous tube in the cochlea containing the organ of Corti. It is in the organ of Corti that are situated the hair cells, the special sensory receptors for hearing.

  • Ear canal, self-cleaning

    Ear canal, self-cleaning: Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning, that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of ear canal skin from the eardrum to the outer opening. Old earwax is constantly being transported from the deeper areas of the ear canal to the opening where it usually dries, flakes, and falls out.

  • Ear cleaning (by a doctor)

    Ear cleaning (by a doctor): When so much wax accumulates that it blocks the ear canal (and hearing), your physician may have to wash it out, vacuum it, or remove it with special instruments. Alternatively, your physician may prescribe ear drops what are designed to soften the wax (such as Cerumenex).

  • Ear cleaning (yourself)

    Ear cleaning (yourself): Never put anything smaller than your elbow in your ear! Wax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum, but only in the outer part of the canal. So when a patient has wax pushed up against the eardrum, it is often because he has been probing his ear with such things as cotton-tipped swabs (such as Q-Tips), bobby pins, or twisted napkin corners. Such objects only serve as ramrods to push the wax in deeper. Also, the skin of the ear canal and the eardrum is very thin, fragile and easily injured. The ear canal is more prone to infection after it has been whipped clean of the "good" coating type wax. In addition, we have seen many perforated eardrums as a result of these efforts.

  • ear lobe crease
    a diagonal crease found on one or both earlobes with a possible connection to coronary heart disease in males.
  • Ear pit

    Ear pit: Tiny pit in front of the ear: preauricular pit. A minor anomaly of no great consequence in itself. More common in blacks than whites and in females than males. Can recur in families. The presence of 2 or more minor anomalies in a child increases the probability that the child has a major malformation.

  • Ear puncture

    Ear puncture: Puncture of the ear drum may be due to an accident for example when something is stuck into the ear. Or it may be due to fluid pressure in the middle ear. Today the ear drum is occasionally punctured on purpose with surgery. A surgically placed tiny incision (a myringotomy) is made in the eardrum. Any fluid, usually thickened secretions, is removed and an ear tube may be inserted.

  • Ear ringing

    Ear ringing: Together with other abnormal ear noises, ear ringing is medically called tinnitis. Tinnitus can arise in any of the four sections of the ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain. If tinnitus persists and its cause is unknown, a hearing test (audiogram) should be done. Measures can be taken to lessen the intensity of tinnitus.

  • Ear tag

    Ear tag: Common minor anomaly, a rudimentary tag of ear tissue, often containing a core cartilage, usually located just in front of the ear (auricle). Therefore also called preauricular tag. The presence of 2 or more minor anomalies in a child increases the probability that the child has a major malformation.

  • Ear tubes

    Ear tubes: Formally known as tympanostomy tubes, ear tubes are small plastic tubes inserted into the eardrum (the tympanum) to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged period of time. To put the tubes in place, a myringotomy (a surgically placed tiny incision in the eardrum) is done. Any fluid, usually thickened secretions, will be removed. The ear tubes usually remain in place for 6 months to several years. Water should not be allowed to enter the ear canal while the tubes are in place. Eventually, they will move out of the eardrum (extrude) and fall into the ear canal. The doctor may remove the tube during a routine future office visit or it may simply fall out of the ear without the child realizing it.

  • Ear wax

    Ear wax: The ear canal is shaped somewhat like an hourglass. The skin on the outer part of the canal has special glands that produce earwax. The purpose of this natural wax is to repel water and to trap dust and sand particles. Usually a small amount of wax accumulates, and then dries up and falls out of the ear canal caring with it unwanted particles. Ear wax is helpful in normal amounts and serves to coat the skin of the ear canal where it acts as a temporary water repellent. The absence of ear wax may result in dry, itchy ears, and even infection.

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