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Medical Dictionary     A
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  • A
    Not, without, -less; equivalent to L. in- and E. un-.
  • A (adenine)

    A (adenine): In genetics, A stands for adenine, one member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine).

  • A bands
    the dark-staining anisotropic cross striations in the myofibrils of muscle fibers, comprising regions of overlapping thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments.

    Alternate names: A discs, anisotropic discs, Q bands1, Q discs

  • A bile
    bile from the common duct.
  • A cells
    alpha cells of pancreas or of anterior lobe of hypophysis.
  • A chain
    the shorter polypeptide component of insulin containing 21 amino acyl residues, beginning with a glycyl residue (NH2-terminus); insulin consists of an A chain linked to a B chain by two disulfide bonds; the amino-acid composition of the A chain is a function of species; in general, one of the polypeptides in a multiprotein complex.
  • A fibers
    myelinated nerve fibers in somatic nerves, measuring 1–22 mcm in diameter, conducting nerve impulses at a rate of 6–120 meters per second.
  • A wave
    the initial negative deflection in the electroretinogram, presumably reflecting retinal photoreceptor activity; an atrial deflection in an electrogram recorded from within the atrium of the heart; the first positive deflection of the atrial and venous pulses due to atrial systole.
  • A−
    Symbol for anion.
  • a-
    Not, without, -less; equivalent to L. in- and E. un-.
  • A- (prefix)

    A- (prefix): Prefix much employed in the health sciences indicating �not, without, -less� as, for example, in alexia (not read), aphagia (not eat), aphonia (not voice, voiceless). The �a-� usually becomes �an-� before a vowel as, for example, in anemia (without blood), anotia (no ear), anoxia (no oxygen). The prefix �a-� comes from the Greek meaning �not.�

  • a-c interval
    the interval between the onset of the a wave and that of the c wave of the jugular pulse.
  • A-DNA
    a form of DNA in which the helix is right handed and the overall appearance is short and broad.
  • A-E amputation
    acronym for above-the-elbow amputation.
  • A-K amputation
    acronym for above-the-knee amputation.
  • A-mode
    In diagnostic ultrasound, a one-dimensional presentation of a reflected sound wave in which echo amplitude (A) is displayed along the vertical axis and echo delay (depth) along the horizontal axis; the echo information derives from tissue interfaces along a single line in the direction of the sound beam.
  • A-P-C
    Abbreviation for adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival; antigen-presenting cells, under cell.
  • A-pattern esotropia
    convergent strabismus greater in upward than in downward gaze.
  • A-pattern exotropia
    divergent strabismus greater in downward than in upward gaze.
  • A-strabismus
    strabismus in which esotropia is more marked in looking upward than downward; strabismus in which exotropia is more marked on looking downward than upward.

    Alternate names: A-pattern strabismus

  • A-V shunt
    arteriovenous shunt.
  • A-V strabismus syndrome
    strabismus in which the angle of deviation is more marked on looking upward or downward.

    See Also: A-pattern esotropia, V-pattern esotropia, A-pattern exotropia, V-pattern exotropia

  • A-V valves
    abbreviation for the cardiac atrioventricular valves; the mitral and tricuspid valves.
  • A.B.C. process
    purification of water or deodorization of sewage by a mixture of alum, blood, and charcoal.
  • a.c.
    Abbreviation for L. ante cibum, before a meal or ante cibos, before meals.
  • A.D.
    Abbreviation for auris dextra [L.], right ear.
  • A.S.
    Abbreviation for auris sinistra [L.], left ear.
  • A.U.
    Abbreviation for auris utraque [L.], each ear or both ears.
  • A/T cloning
    cloning of fragments in which the only overhanging (or uncomplemented) ends are the A or T bases; occurs often in use of specific enzymes to cut or make DNA fragments.
  • A2 thalassemia
    β thalassemia, heterozygous state.
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