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Medical Dictionary     Y
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  • Y
    Abbreviation for yocto-.
  • Y (in chemistry)

    Y (in chemistry): The symbol for the element yttrium, an ultrarare metal named after Ytterby in southern Sweden. Yttrium has been used in certain nuclear medicine scans.

  • Y (in genetics)

    Y (in genetics): The Y chromosome, the sex chromosome found in normal males, together with an X chromosome.

  • Y body
    a single fluorescent spot originating in the long arm of the Y chromosome and visible in somatic nuclei of buccal smears.
  • Y cartilage
    the connecting cartilage for the ilium, ischium, and pubis; it extends through the acetabulum.

    Alternate names: hypsiloid cartilage

  • Y chromatin

    Y chromatin: Brilliantly fluorescent body seen in cells stained with the dye quinacrine which lights up the Y chromosomes most brightly.

  • Y chromosome

    Y chromosome: The sex chromosome found in normal males, together with an X chromosome. Once thought to be a genetic wasteland, the Y now is known to contain at least 20 genes, some of them unique to the Y including the male-determining gene and male fitness genes that are active only in the testis and are thought responsible for the formation of sperm. Other genes on the Y have counterparts on the X chromosome, are active in many body tissues and play crucial "housekeeping" roles with the cell.

  • Y map

    Y map: The array of genes on the Y chromosome. Once thought to be a genetic wasteland, the Y now is known to contain at least 20 genes, some of them unique to the Y including the male-determining gene and male fitness genes that are active only in the testis and are thought responsible for the formation of sperm. Other genes on the Y have counterparts on the X chromosome, are active in many body tissues and play crucial "housekeeping" roles with the cell.

  • y wave
    the negative wave in the atrial and venous pulse curves reflecting rapid filling of the ventricles just after the atrioventricular valves open.
  • y+
    Abbreviation for yocto-.
  • Y-
    Abbreviation for yocto-.
  • y-angle
    in craniometry, the angle at the inion formed by lines drawn from the hormion and the lambda.

    Alternate names: hypsiloid angle

  • Y-axis
    a cephalometric indicator of the vertical and horizontal coordinates of mandibular growth expressed in degrees of the inferior facial angle formed by the intersection of the sella-gnathion plane with the Frankfort horizontal plane.
  • Y-linkage
    The state of a genetic factor (gene)'s being borne on the Y chromosome. This idea is analogous with X-linkage, but given that the Y chromosome does not fully take part in chiasma formation and recombination, it is not amenable to analysis by conventional linkage methods. Little is known about its content. There is a gene for the H-Y antigen, and indirect arguments suggest that there is a principle that determines the formation of the testis and masculinization of the fetus but its localization, although narrowing the limits, remains elusive.
  • Y-linked

    Y-linked: A gene on the Y chromosome. A Y-linked gene is by necessity passed from father to son.

  • Y-linked gene
    a gene located on a Y chromosome.

    Alternate names: holandric gene

  • Y-linked inheritance

    Y-linked inheritance: Inheritance by genes on the Y chromosome. Also called holandric inheritance.

  • Y-linked locus
    any (haploid) locus that in normal karyotypes is borne on the Y chromosome. The known content is so far small.
  • Yaba virus
    a poxvirus from the Yatapoxvirus, family Poxviridae, distinct from monkeypox virus, which causes Yaba tumors in monkeys.

    Alternate names: Yaba monkey virus

  • YAC

    YAC: Yeast artificial chromosome.

  • YAG
    Abbreviation and acronym for yttrium-aluminum-garnet.
  • Yag laser surgery

    Yag laser surgery: The use of a laser to punch a hole in the iris to relieve increased pressure within the eye as, for example, from acute angle-closure glaucoma. Yag laser surgery is an office procedure.

  • Yang-Monti catheterizable channel
    A variant of the Mitrofanoff procedure in which a short segment of bowel is reconfigured into a long tube positioned between bladder and skin to permit intermittent catheterization.

    See Also: Mitrofanoff, appendicovesicostomy

  • yaqona
    A Fijian drink made from the powdered root of Piper methysticum (family Piperaceae); excessive drinking of it causes a state of hyperexcitability and a loss of power in the legs; chronic intoxication induces roughening of the skin and a state of debility.

    Alternate names: kava2, kava kava, yanggona

    See Also: methysticum

  • Yard

    Yard: In length, 3 feet or 36 inches or, metrically, 86.44 centimeters. The yard, along with the foot and inch, are English creations to which the USA has stubbornly clung. The yard was originally a unit of measurement of land and was about 5 meters (now termed a rod). In the 14th century, the yard emerged as 3 feet, about the length of a riding stick or sword.

  • Yato-byo
    Japanese term (“wild hare disease”) for tularemia.

    Alternate names: Ohara disease

  • yaw
    An individual lesion of an eruption of yaws.
  • Yawn

    Yawn: Involuntary opening of mouth often caused by suggestion and accompanied by breathing inward then outward. Repeated yawning can be a sign of drowsiness or depression.

  • yawning
    The act of producing a yawn.

    Alternate names: oscitation

  • Yaws

    Yaws: A common chronic infectious disease that occurs mainly in the warm humid regions of the tropics with characteristic bumps on the skin of the face, hands, feet and genital area. Almost all cases of yaws are in children under 15 years of age. The organism that causes yaws is a spirochete. It is spiral shaped, as are all spirochetes, and is termed Treponema pertenue. (A different type of spirochete, Treponema pallidum, is the organism responsible for syphilis). Yaws begins when the spirochete enters the skin at a spot where it was scraped, cut or otherwise compromised. At that site a painless bump arises and grows. It is the mother yaw. The glands in that area are often swollen (regional lymphadenopathy). The mother yaw heals, leaving a light-colored scar. The mother yaw is followed by recurring ("secondary") crops of bumps and more swollen glands. These bumps may be painless like the mother yaw or they may be filled with pus, burst and ulcerate. In its late ("tertiary") stage, yaws can destroy areas of the skin and bones and joints and deform them. The palms and soles tend to become thickened and painful ("dry crab yaws"). The diagnosis of yaws comes to the fore in any child who has the characteristic clinical features and lives in an area where the disease is common. With increasing travel, a child once in the tropics may carry the disease to a more temperate clime. Confirmation of the diagnosis is by blood tests and by special (dark- field) examination under the microscope (to see the spirochete). Treatment of yaws is simple and highly effective. A single shot of penicillin cures the disease. Anyone allergic to penicillin can be treated with another antibiotic, usually erythromycin or tetracycline. Yaws is a major public health problem in the tropics. Tropical regions in Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and Polynesia are at risk for yaws. A high percentage of children can be infected. Transmission of the disease is facilitated by overcrowding and poor hygiene, in the favellas of the cities of northeastern Brazil. Yaws can be completely eradicated from an area by giving penicillin or another appropriate antibiotic to everyone in the population. This may, unfortunately, cost more than a poor country can afford. The term "yaws" is of Caribbean origin. Because the bumps of yaws look like little berries, the disease is also called frambesia (or frambesia tropica) from the French "framboise" meaning "raspberry." Other names include granuloma tropicum polypapilloma tropicum, and thymiosis.

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