Abbreviation for volt; initial rate velocity; velocity; vel [L. or].
As a subscript, refers to venous blood.
viral antigen that is intimately associated with the virus particle, is protein in nature, has multiple antigenicities, and is strain specific; antibody to such antigen is demonstrable as protective or neutralizing antibody, such as hemagglutinin projections on surface of influenza virus.
the gene coding for the major part of the variable region of an immunoglobulin chain.
a unipolar lead with the central terminal as the indifferent electrode; V is the symbol for unipolar (Latin “U”).
a transplantable, highly malignant carcinoma of experimental animals; developed as a result of malignant change in a virus-induced papilloma of a domestic rabbit.
V-shaped bends incorporated in an archwire, usually placed mesially or distally to the canines (cuspids) and used as a “dead” area of wire through which torquing bends may be placed.
Abbreviation for Volpe-Manhold Index.
convergent strabismus greater in downward than in upward gaze.
divergent strabismus greater in upward than in downward gaze.
Abbreviation for ventriculoatrial.
Abbreviation for ventriculoatrial conduction.
An unsaturated fatty acid of which both cis and trans isomers are found in butter and other animal fats.
Relating to vaccine or vaccination.
To administer a vaccine.
Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to
stimulate the immune system against the microbe, thereby preventing disease. Vaccinations,
or immunizations, work by stimulating the immune system, the natural disease-fighting
system of the body. The healthy immune system is able to recognize invading bacteria and
viruses and produce substances (antibodies) to destroy or disable them. Immunizations
prepare the immune system to ward off a disease. To immunize against viral diseases, the
virus used in the vaccine has been weakened or killed. To only immunize against bacterial
diseases, it is generally possible to use a small portion of the dead bacteria to
stimulate the formation of antibodies against the whole bacteria. In addition to the
initial immunization process, it has been found that the effectiveness of immunizations
can be improved by periodic repeat injections or "boosters." Also see Vaccines
(in the plural) and Vaccine of a specific type (such Vaccine, Polio).
Vaccination, anthrax: A series of six shots over six
months and booster shots annually, the anthrax vaccine now in use in the USA was first
developed in the 1950s and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for general use in
1970. It is produced by the Michigan Biologic Products Institute of Michigans
Department of Health and is given routinely to veterinarians and others working with
livestock. In December, 1997 it was announced that all US military would receive the
vaccine, as do the military in the UK and Russia, the reason being concern that anthrax
might be used in biologic warfare.
Vaccination, chickenpox (varicella)
Vaccination, chickenpox (varicella): This vaccine
common disease known as chickenpox (varicella zoster). While
chickenpox is often
considered a trivial illness, it can cause significant lost time on
the job and in school
and have serious complications including ear infections, pneumonia,
and infection of the
rash with bacteria, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) leading
to difficulty with
balance and coordination (cerebellar ataxia), damaged nerves
(palsies), and Reyes
syndrome, a potentially fatal complication. The vaccination requires
only one shot given
at about a year of age. If an older person has not had chickenpox,
the shot may be given
at any time. There have been few significant reactions to the
chickenpox vaccine. All
children, except those with a compromised immune system, should have
Vaccination, childrens: In the United States, it
is recommended that all children receive vaccination against: - Hepatitis B - Diphtheria,
tetanus, pertussis - Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
- Measles, mumps, rubella
- Varicella zoster virus (chickenpox). Every child in the U.S. should
have these vaccinations except when there are special circumstances and the childs
doctor advises specifically against a vaccination..
Vaccination, DPT: DPT immunization protects from
diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus and is given in a series of 5 shots at
2, 4, 6, 18 months of age and 4-6 years of age. Thanks to vaccination programs, these
diseases have become less common. However, there are still unvaccinated individuals
capable of carrying and passing diphtheria and pertussis to others who are not vaccinated.
Tetanus bacteria are prevalent in natural surroundings, such as contaminated soil. See
also Vaccination, DTaP.
Vaccination, DT: DT (diphtheria and tetanus) vaccine
does not protect from pertussis and is usually reserved for individuals who have had a
significant adverse reaction to a DPT shot or who have a personal or family history of a
seizure disorder or brain disease
Vaccination, DTaP: Like DPT, DTaP protects from
diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus. DTaP is the same as DTP, except that
it contains only acellular pertussis vaccine which is thought to cause fewer of the minor
reactions associated with immunization and is also probably less likely to cause the more
severe reactions occasionally seen following pertussis vaccination. DTaP is currently
recommended only for the shots given at 18 months and 4-6 years of age.
Vaccination, German measles
Vaccination, German measles: See Vaccination, MMR.
Vaccination, H. flu
Vaccination, H. flu: See Vaccination, HIB.
Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B
Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B: See
Vaccination, hepatitis A
Vaccination, hepatitis A: When immediate protection
against hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is needed, immunoglobulins are used. Protection
is effective only if given within 2 weeks of exposure and lasts but 2-4 months.
Immunoglobulins can be used to protect household contacts of someone with acute viral
hepatitis and travelers to regions with poor sanitation and high hepatitis A rates, when
the traveler has to depart sooner than the vaccines can take effect (about 2 weeks).
Travelers can receive the immunoglobulin and vaccine simultaneously and be protected
immediately and for longer term. When immediate protection is not needed, hepatitis A
vaccines are considered for individuals in high-risk settings, including frequent world
travelers, sexually active individuals with multiple partners, homosexual men, individuals
using illicit drugs, employees of daycare centers, and certain health care workers, and
sewage workers. Two hepatitis A vaccines called HAVRIX and VAQTA are commercially
available in the U.S. Both are highly effective and provide protection even after only one
dose. Two doses are recommended for adults and 3 doses for children (under 18 years of
age) to provide prolonged protection.
Vaccination, hepatitis B
Vaccination, hepatitis B: Hepatits B (hep B) vaccine
gives prolonged protection, but 3 shots over a half year are usually
All infants in the U.S. receive hep B vaccine. Two vaccines
(ENGERIX-B, and RECOMBIVAX-HB) are available in the US. The first
dose of hep B vaccine is frequently given while the newborn is in the
hospital or at the first doctor visit following birth. The second
dose is given about 30 days after the initial dose. A booster dose is
performed approximately six months later.
Babies born to mothers testing positive for hep B receive, in
addition, HBIG (hep B immune globulin) for prompt protection.
Older children (11-12 years) are advised to receive
a hep B booster.
Adults in high-risk situations are also advised to get a hep A
booster. Those in high-risk situations include healthcare workers,
dentists, intimate and household contacts of patients with chronic
hep B infection, male homosexuals, individuals with multiple sexual
partners, dialysis patients, IV drug users, and recipients of
repeated transfusions. Healthcare workers accidentally exposed to
materials infected with hep B (such as needle sticks), and
individuals with known sexual contact with hep B patients are
available in the U.S.
Both vaccines (ENGERIX-B, and RECOMBIVAX-HB) are highly effective
and provide protection even after only one dose. However, as
indicated, two doses are recommended for adults and 3 doses for
children (under 18 years of age) to provide prolonged protection.
Vaccination, HIB: This vaccine is to prevent disease
caused by the Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) bacteria. The H. influenzae (H. flu)
bacteria can cause a range of serious diseases including meningitis with potential brain
damage and epiglottitis with airway obstruction poisoning. The HIB vaccine is usually
given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. A final booster is given at 12-15 months of age. HIB
vaccine rarely causes severe reactions.
Vaccination, infectious hepatitis
Vaccination, infectious hepatitis: See Vaccination,