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Medical Dictionary     V
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  • V
    Abbreviation for volt; initial rate velocity; velocity; vel [L. or]. As a subscript, refers to venous blood.
  • V antigen
    viral antigen that is intimately associated with the virus particle, is protein in nature, has multiple antigenicities, and is strain specific; antibody to such antigen is demonstrable as protective or neutralizing antibody, such as hemagglutinin projections on surface of influenza virus.
  • V gene
    the gene coding for the major part of the variable region of an immunoglobulin chain.
  • V lead
    a unipolar lead with the central terminal as the indifferent electrode; V is the symbol for unipolar (Latin “U”).
  • V wave
  • V-2 carcinoma
    a transplantable, highly malignant carcinoma of experimental animals; developed as a result of malignant change in a virus-induced papilloma of a domestic rabbit.
  • V-bends
    V-shaped bends incorporated in an archwire, usually placed mesially or distally to the canines (cuspids) and used as a “dead” area of wire through which torquing bends may be placed.
  • V-MI
    Abbreviation for Volpe-Manhold Index.
  • V-pattern esotropia
    convergent strabismus greater in downward than in upward gaze.
  • V-pattern exotropia
    divergent strabismus greater in upward than in downward gaze.
  • V-Y flap
  • VA
    Abbreviation for ventriculoatrial.
  • VAC
    Abbreviation for ventriculoatrial conduction.
  • vaccenic acid
    An unsaturated fatty acid of which both cis and trans isomers are found in butter and other animal fats.
  • vaccinal
    Relating to vaccine or vaccination.
  • vaccinate
    To administer a vaccine.
  • Vaccination

    Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against the microbe, thereby preventing disease. Vaccinations, or immunizations, work by stimulating the immune system, the natural disease-fighting system of the body. The healthy immune system is able to recognize invading bacteria and viruses and produce substances (antibodies) to destroy or disable them. Immunizations prepare the immune system to ward off a disease. To immunize against viral diseases, the virus used in the vaccine has been weakened or killed. To only immunize against bacterial diseases, it is generally possible to use a small portion of the dead bacteria to stimulate the formation of antibodies against the whole bacteria. In addition to the initial immunization process, it has been found that the effectiveness of immunizations can be improved by periodic repeat injections or "boosters." Also see Vaccines (in the plural) and Vaccine of a specific type (such Vaccine, Polio).

  • Vaccination, anthrax

    Vaccination, anthrax: A series of six shots over six months and booster shots annually, the anthrax vaccine now in use in the USA was first developed in the 1950s and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for general use in 1970. It is produced by the Michigan Biologic Products Institute of Michigan’s Department of Health and is given routinely to veterinarians and others working with livestock. In December, 1997 it was announced that all US military would receive the vaccine, as do the military in the UK and Russia, the reason being concern that anthrax might be used in biologic warfare.

  • Vaccination, chickenpox (varicella)

    Vaccination, chickenpox (varicella): This vaccine prevents the common disease known as chickenpox (varicella zoster). While chickenpox is often considered a trivial illness, it can cause significant lost time on the job and in school and have serious complications including ear infections, pneumonia, and infection of the rash with bacteria, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) leading to difficulty with balance and coordination (cerebellar ataxia), damaged nerves (palsies), and Reye’s syndrome, a potentially fatal complication. The vaccination requires only one shot given at about a year of age. If an older person has not had chickenpox, the shot may be given at any time. There have been few significant reactions to the chickenpox vaccine. All children, except those with a compromised immune system, should have the vaccination.

  • Vaccination, children’s

    Vaccination, children’s: In the United States, it is recommended that all children receive vaccination against: - Hepatitis B - Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis - Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) - Poliovirus - Measles, mumps, rubella - Varicella zoster virus (chickenpox). Every child in the U.S. should have these vaccinations except when there are special circumstances and the child’s doctor advises specifically against a vaccination..

  • Vaccination, DPT

    Vaccination, DPT: DPT immunization protects from diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus and is given in a series of 5 shots at 2, 4, 6, 18 months of age and 4-6 years of age. Thanks to vaccination programs, these diseases have become less common. However, there are still unvaccinated individuals capable of carrying and passing diphtheria and pertussis to others who are not vaccinated. Tetanus bacteria are prevalent in natural surroundings, such as contaminated soil. See also Vaccination, DTaP.

  • Vaccination, DT

    Vaccination, DT: DT (diphtheria and tetanus) vaccine does not protect from pertussis and is usually reserved for individuals who have had a significant adverse reaction to a DPT shot or who have a personal or family history of a seizure disorder or brain disease

  • Vaccination, DTaP

    Vaccination, DTaP: Like DPT, DTaP protects from diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus. DTaP is the same as DTP, except that it contains only acellular pertussis vaccine which is thought to cause fewer of the minor reactions associated with immunization and is also probably less likely to cause the more severe reactions occasionally seen following pertussis vaccination. DTaP is currently recommended only for the shots given at 18 months and 4-6 years of age.

  • Vaccination, German measles

    Vaccination, German measles: See Vaccination, MMR.

  • Vaccination, H. flu

    Vaccination, H. flu: See Vaccination, HIB.

  • Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B

    Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B: See Vaccination, HIB.

  • Vaccination, hepatitis A

    Vaccination, hepatitis A: When immediate protection against hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is needed, immunoglobulins are used. Protection is effective only if given within 2 weeks of exposure and lasts but 2-4 months. Immunoglobulins can be used to protect household contacts of someone with acute viral hepatitis and travelers to regions with poor sanitation and high hepatitis A rates, when the traveler has to depart sooner than the vaccines can take effect (about 2 weeks). Travelers can receive the immunoglobulin and vaccine simultaneously and be protected immediately and for longer term. When immediate protection is not needed, hepatitis A vaccines are considered for individuals in high-risk settings, including frequent world travelers, sexually active individuals with multiple partners, homosexual men, individuals using illicit drugs, employees of daycare centers, and certain health care workers, and sewage workers. Two hepatitis A vaccines called HAVRIX and VAQTA are commercially available in the U.S. Both are highly effective and provide protection even after only one dose. Two doses are recommended for adults and 3 doses for children (under 18 years of age) to provide prolonged protection.

  • Vaccination, hepatitis B

    Vaccination, hepatitis B: Hepatits B (hep B) vaccine gives prolonged protection, but 3 shots over a half year are usually required. All infants in the U.S. receive hep B vaccine. Two vaccines (ENGERIX-B, and RECOMBIVAX-HB) are available in the US. The first dose of hep B vaccine is frequently given while the newborn is in the hospital or at the first doctor visit following birth. The second dose is given about 30 days after the initial dose. A booster dose is performed approximately six months later. Babies born to mothers testing positive for hep B receive, in addition, HBIG (hep B immune globulin) for prompt protection. Older children (11-12 years) are advised to receive a hep B booster. Adults in high-risk situations are also advised to get a hep A booster. Those in high-risk situations include healthcare workers, dentists, intimate and household contacts of patients with chronic hep B infection, male homosexuals, individuals with multiple sexual partners, dialysis patients, IV drug users, and recipients of repeated transfusions. Healthcare workers accidentally exposed to materials infected with hep B (such as needle sticks), and individuals with known sexual contact with hep B patients are available in the U.S. Both vaccines (ENGERIX-B, and RECOMBIVAX-HB) are highly effective and provide protection even after only one dose. However, as indicated, two doses are recommended for adults and 3 doses for children (under 18 years of age) to provide prolonged protection.

  • Vaccination, HIB

    Vaccination, HIB: This vaccine is to prevent disease caused by the Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) bacteria. The H. influenzae (H. flu) bacteria can cause a range of serious diseases including meningitis with potential brain damage and epiglottitis with airway obstruction poisoning. The HIB vaccine is usually given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. A final booster is given at 12-15 months of age. HIB vaccine rarely causes severe reactions.

  • Vaccination, infectious hepatitis

    Vaccination, infectious hepatitis: See Vaccination, hepatitis A.

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