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Medical Dictionary     U
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  • U
    Symbol for internal energy.
  • U wave
    a positive wave following an upright T wave of the electrocardiogram. It is negative following an inverted T wave.
  • u-score method
    an older, simpler, but somewhat less efficient method of linkage analysis than that by maximum likelihood estimation.
  • UA
    Abbreviation for urinalysis.
  • UARS
  • ubiquinol
  • ubiquinone
    A 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone with a multiprenyl side chain; a mobile component of electron transport.

    See Also: coenzyme Q

  • ubiquinone-10
  • ubiquinone-6
    2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-hexaprenyl-1,4 benzoquinone.
  • ubiquitin
    A small (76 amino acyl residues) protein found in all cells of higher organisms and one with a structure that has changed minimally during evolutionary history; involved in at least two processes; histone modification and intracellular protein breakdown.
  • ubiquitin-protease pathway
    pathway in which a small protein cofactor, ubiquitin, couples with protein substrate to catalyze proteolytic destruction by proteases; this pathway is highly selective and tightly regulated and is responsible for protein degradation seen in muscle-wasting diseases.
  • ubiquitin-proteasome system
    a multicomponent system that identifies and degrades unwanted proteins in the cytoplasm of all cells; involved in cell growth and differentiation, DNA replication and repair, apoptosis, and stress and immune responses.
  • UBT

    UBT: Urea breath test.

  • UDP
    Abbreviation for uridine 5′-diphosphate.
  • UDP-GlcUA
    Abbreviation for uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid.
  • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase: A liver enzyme essential to the disposal of bilirubin (the chemical that results from the normal breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells). An abnormality of this enzyme (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) results in a condition called Gilbert's disease in which there are mild elevations of bilirubin pigment in the blood. The elevated bilirubin pigment can sometimes cause mild yellowing (jaundice) of the eyes. People with Gilbert's disease are otherwise entirely normal with no other signs or symptoms and their liver enzymes in blood serum are also entirely normal. There is no need for treatment, and the prognosis (outlook) is excellent. The gene for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase has been mapped a non-sex chromosome (chromosome 2). A single dose of the Gilbert version of the gene is enough to produce Gilbert's disease.(The condition is said therefore to be an autosomal dominant trait). If someone has Gilbert's disease, the chance of their transmitting the Gilbert gene to each of their children is one-half (50%) and each child who gets the gene gets Gilbert's disease. Gilbert's disease is a frequent finding in people in the U.S. and Europe. The condition is usually detected serendipitously (purely by accident) in the course of routine blood screening. Gilbert's disease is thus an accidentally-encountered enzyme abnormality of no health consequence.

  • UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosaminyl-1-phosphotransferase
    An enzyme that participates in the posttranslational modification of a number of lysosomal proteins; a deficiency or defect in this enzyme results in two forms of mucolipidoses, I-cell disease, and pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy.
  • UDPG
    Abbreviation for uridine diphosphoglucose.
  • UDPGal
    Abbreviation for uridine diphosphogalactose.
  • UDPgalactose
    Uridine diphosphogalactose.
  • UDPGlc
  • UDPglucose 4-epimerase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible Walden inversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose; a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with one type of galactosemia.

    Alternate names: UDPgalactose 4-epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucose 4-epimerase

  • UDPglucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of α-d-glucose 1-phosphate UDPgalactose to produce UDPglucose and α-d-galactose 1-phosphate.

    Alternate names: hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, phosphogalactoisomerase

    See Also: UDPglucose 4-epimerase

  • UDPglucuronate-bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase
    Hepatic transferases that catalyze the transfer of the glucuronic moiety of UDP-glucuronic acid to bilirubin or bilirubin glucuronide, thus producing UDP and either bilirubin-glucoronoside or bilirubin bisglucuronoside, respectively; these bile conjugates are then secreted into the bile.

    Alternate names: UDPglucuronate - bilirubinglucuronoside glucuronosyltransferase

  • UDPxylose
    A sugar derivative in which a pyrophosphate group links the 5′ position of uridine and the 1-position of d-xylose; formed by the decarboxylation of UDPglucuronic acid; required for the synthesis of proteoglycans; inhibits UDPglucose dehydrogenase.
  • UFA
    Abbreviation for unesterified free fatty acid.
  • Uffelmann reagent
    a solution prepared by adding a 2% solution of phenol in water to aqueous ferric chloride until the solution becomes violet; this turns lemon yellow in the presence of lactic acid, assumes an opaline tint in butyric acid, and is decolorized by hydrochloric acid.
  • UFT
    A 1:4 molar mixture of florafur and uracil.

    See Also: florafur, uracil

  • UGI
    Abbreviation for upper gastrointestinal series.
  • UGIS
    Abbreviation for upper gastrointestinal series.
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