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Medical Dictionary     P
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  • P
    Abbreviation for para- (4).
  • P antigens

    See P blood group, Blood Groups Appendix

  • p arm of a chromosome

    p arm of a chromosome: The short arm of a chromosome. The "p" comes from the French "petit" meaning small. All human chromosomes have 2 arms - the p (short) arm and the q (long) arm - that are separated from each other only by a primary constriction, the centromere, the point at which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.The symbol "q" was chosen for the long arm simply because it followed "p" in the alphabet.

  • P cell
    a characteristic specialized cell, with probable pacemaker function, found in the sinuatrial node and A-V junction.
  • P congenitale
    The P-wave pattern in the electrocardiogram seen in some cases of congenital heart disease, consisting of tall peaked P waves in leads I, II, aVF, and aVL (usually largest in lead II) with predominant positivity of diphasic waves in V1–2.
  • P elements
    a class of transposable elements in Drosophila responsible for hybrid dysgenesis; used as tools for introducing genes into new locations in the genome.
  • P factor
    see P blood group, in Blood Groups Appendix.
  • p in biochemistry

    p in biochemistry: The abbreviation for protein. For example, p53 is a protein (53 kilodaltons in size).

  • p in population genetics

    p in population genetics: The frequency of the more common of two different alternative (allelic) versions of a gene. (The frequency of less common allele is q).

  • P mitrale
    Broad, notched P waves in several or many leads of the electrocardiogram with a prominent late negative component to the P wave in lead V1, presumed to be characteristic of mitral valvular disease. (Although this term is extensively used in electrocardiographic literature, it is actually a misnomer and would be more appropriately called P-sinistrocardiale, as it results from overload of the left atrium regardless of the cause and may occur independently of disease of the mitral valve.)
  • P pulmonale
    Tall, narrow, peaked P waves in electrocardiographic leads II, III, and aVF, and often a prominent initial positive P wave component in V1, presumed to be characteristic of cor pulmonale. (Although this term is extensively used in the electrocardiographic literature, it is actually a misnomer and should be more appropriately called P-dextrocardiale, because it results from overload of the right atrium regardless of the cause, as in tricuspid stenosis, and may occur independently of cor pulmonale.) In lung disease, P pulmonale is usually transient, occurring during exacerbations, usually asthmatic.
  • P selectin
    cell surface receptor present on endothelium and stimulated platelets that is involved with neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
  • P wave
    the first complex of the electrocardiogram, during sinus and atrial rhythms, representing depolarization of the atria; if the P wave is retrograde or ectopic in axis or form, it is labeled P′.
  • Pérez sign
    rales audible over the upper part of the chest when the arms are alternately raised and lowered; common in cases of fibrous mediastinitis and also of aneurysm of the aortic arch.
  • pétrissage
    A manipulation in massage, consisting in a kneading of the muscles.
  • Pólya gastrectomy
    surgical procedure consisting of partial gastrectomy and retrocolic end-to-side gastrojejunostomy involving the transected body of the stomach.

    Alternate names: Pólya operation

  • p-
    Abbreviation for para- (4).
  • p-aminobenzoic acid
    4-aminobenzoic acid, a factor in the vitamin B complex, required for biosynthesis of folate; neutralizes the bacteriostatic effects of the sulfonamides because it furnishes an essential growth factor for bacteria; elevated concentrations of the sulfonamides interfere with use of this agent and of folates; used as an ultraviolet screen in lotions and creams. It is produced in a test of pancreatic function.

    Alternate names: paraaminobenzoic acid, vitamin Bx

  • p-aminohippurate clearance
    a good measure of renal plasma flow, which it slightly underestimates; when a low plasma concentration of p-aminohippurate (PAH) is maintained by intravenous infusion, the kidney extracts and excretes almost all of the PAH from the plasma before it reaches the renal vein.
  • p-aminohippuric acid
    Acid used in renal function tests to measure renal plasma flow; actively secreted (and filtered) by the kidney.
  • p-aminohippuric acid synthase
    an enzyme in the liver that catalyzes the synthesis of p-aminohippuric acid from p-aminobenzoic acid (or the CoA derivative) and glycine. It may be identical with glycine acyltransferase.
  • p-aminosalicylic acid
    A bacteriostatic agent against tubercle bacilli, used as a second-line agent; potassium, sodium, and calcium salts have the same use.
  • p-chloromercuribenzoate
    Organic mercury compound that reacts with —SH groups of proteins; an inhibitor of action of those proteins (enzymes) that depend on —SH reactivity.
  • p-CMB
    Abbreviation for p-chloromercuribenzoate.
  • P-dextrocardiale
    An electrocardiographic syndrome characteristic of overloading of the right atrium, often called P-pulmonale (erroneously, because the syndrome can result from any overloading of the right atrium [tricuspid stenosis] and independently of cor pulmonale).
  • P-glycoprotein
    Protein associated with tumor multidrug resistance; acts as energy-requiring efflux pump for many classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Alternate names: P-170

  • p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
  • p-hydroxyphenylacetate
    A minor side product of l-tyrosine degradation that is elevated in the urine in cases of neonatal tyrosinemia and in type II tyrosinemia.
  • p-hydroxyphenyllactate
    A metabolite in tyrosine degradation that is elevated in people with type II tyrosinemia.
  • p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate
    A metabolite formed by the transamination of tyrosine; elevated in the urine of people with tyrosinemia.
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