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Medical Dictionary     G
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  • G
    Unit of acceleration based on the acceleration produced by the earth's gravitational attraction, where 1 g = 980.621 cm/sec2 (about 32.1725 ft/sec2) at sea level and 45° latitude. At 30° latitude, g equals 979.329 cm/sec2.
  • G (guanine)

    G (guanine): G stands for guanine, one member of the base pair G-C (guanine-cytosine) in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is A-T (adenine-thymine).

  • G antigen
    an antigenic glycoprotein frequently associated with viral surfaces.
  • G cells
    enteroendocrine cells that secrete gastrin, found primarily in the mucosa of the pyloric antrum of the stomach.
  • G factor
    the single common variance or factor that is common to (empirically intercorrelates with) different intelligence tests (general); a substance required for the growth of a specific organism.
  • G force
    inertial force produced by accelerations or gravity, expressed in gravitational units; one G is equal to the pull of gravity at the earth's surface at sea level and 45° north latitude (32.1725 ft/sec2; 980.621 cm/sec2).

    See Also: g

  • G protein diseases
    a widely variant group of diseases resultant from mutations in G proteins; these include endocrine adenomas, cholera, and nightblindness.
  • G proteins

    G proteins: These molecules have been described as �biological traffic lights.� Located inside the cell, G proteins are able respond to signals outside the cell�light, smell, hormones�and translate (transduce) these signals into action within the cell. Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for �their discovery of G- proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.�

  • G syndrome
    a syndrome of characteristic facies associated with hypospadias, ventral curvature of the penis, and dysphagia. Apparently the same as the BBB syndrome of Opritz et al. Autosomal dominant inheritance.
  • Gärtner method
    a method of measuring venous pressure, based on the Gärtner vein phenomenon; with the patient sitting erect, a vein is selected on the back of the hand that is held dependent, well below the level of the right atrium, and then is raised slowly; when the vein is observed to collapse, the distance between its level and that of the atrium is measured with a millimeter rule; this distance gives the venous pressure in millimeters of blood; thus the vein itself is used as a manometer communicating with the right atrium; highly inaccurate, especially in elderly subjects.
  • Gärtner tonometer
    an apparatus for estimating the blood pressure by noting the force, expressed by the height of a column of mercury, needed to arrest pulsation in a finger encircled by a compressing ring.
  • Gärtner vein phenomenon
    fullness of the veins of the arm and hand held below heart level and collapse at a certain variable distance above that level. An unreliable test for venous pressure.
  • Gély suture
    a cobbler's suture used in closing intestinal wounds.
  • Göthlin test
    a capillary fragility test to determine the presence or absence of scurvy.
  • Günning reaction
    the formation of iodoform from acetone by iodine and ammonia in alcohol.
  • Günz ligament
    a portion of the superficial layer of the obturator membrane.
  • Günzberg reagent
    phloroglucin and vanillin used as a reagent in Günzberg test.
  • Günzberg test
    a test for hydrochloric acid using phloroglucin vanillin (Günzberg reagent), with which a bright red color is produced in the presence of the acid.
  • G-actin
    the globular (G) subunit of the actin molecule, having a molecular weight 42 kD; it is soluble in dilute salt, polymerizing to F-actin when the ionic strength is increased.
  • G-banding stain
    a chromosome-staining technique used in human cytogenetics to identify individual chromosomes, which produces characteristic bands; it utilizes acetic acid fixation, air drying, denaturing chromosomes mildly with proteolytic enzymes, salts, heat, detergents, or urea, and finally Giemsa stain; chromosome bands appear similar to those fluorochromed by Q-banding stain.

    Alternate names: Giemsa chromosome banding stain

  • G-CSF
    Abbreviation for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
  • g-tolerance
    The tolerance of a person or a piece of equipment to forces that develop as a result of acceleration or deceleration.
  • G0
    Symbol for gap0 period.
  • G1
    Symbol for gap1 period.
  • G2
    Symbol for gap2 period.
  • Ga
    Symbol for gallium, preceded by superscript, it indicates an isotope.
  • GABA
    Abbreviation for γ-aminobutyric acid.
  • gabanergic
    Pertaining to the action of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) or to neural or metabolic pathways in which it functions as a transmitter.

    Alternate names: GABA-ergic, gabaergic

  • Gaboon ulcer
    a form of tropical ulcer affecting the residents of this region; it resembles a syphilitic ulcer, especially in the appearance of its scar.
  • GAD
    Abbreviation for glutamate decarboxylase; generalized anxiety disorder.
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