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  • ablution
    An act of washing or bathing.
  • abnerval
    Away from a nerve; denoting specifically a current of electricity passing through a muscular fiber in a direction away from the point of entrance of the nerve fiber.

    Alternate names: abneural1

  • abneural
    Away from the neural axis.

    Alternate names: abnerval

  • abnormal
    Not normal; differing in any way from the usual state, structure, condition, or rule.

    Alternate names: deviant1

  • abnormal cleavage of cardiac valve
    congenital malformation of a valve leaflet with a defect extending from the free margin.
  • abnormal neurulation
    failure of closure of part(s) of the neural tube that produces neural tube defects such as spinal bifida cystica.
  • abnormal occlusion
    an arrangement of the teeth that is not considered to be within the normal range of variation.
  • abnormality
    The state or quality of being abnormal. An anomaly, deformity, malformation, impairment, or dysfunction.
  • ABO
    Symbol for blood group systems, under system.
  • ABO blood group

    ABO blood group: The major human blood group system. The ABO type of a person depends upon the presence or absence of two genes, A and B. These genes determine the configuration of the red blood cell surface. A person can be A, B, AB, or O. If a person has two A genes, their red blood cells are type A. If a person has two B genes, their red cells are type B. If the person has one A and one B gene, their red cells are type AB. If the person has neither the A nor B gene, they are type O. The situation with antibodies in blood plasma is just the opposite of the red cell antigen types. Someone with type A red cells has anti-B antibodies (directed against type B red cells) in their blood. Someone with type B red cells has anti-A antibodies in plasma. Someone who is type O has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in plasma. And someone who is type AB has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in plasma. It is most important to determine the ABO status of both donor and recipient in transplants and transfusions. ABO incompatability in such procedures can be a disaster. The first recorded blood transfusion may have taken place in 1492 when Pope Innocent VIII, laying in a coma, was given the blood of 3 young men. Blood typing and crossmatching was not done. The pope died, as did the 3 donors. In 1901 a Viennese pathologist named Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) published an aricle entitled "On Agglutination Phenomena of Normal Human Blood," in which he observed that, when blood was transfused from one human to another, the body often clumped the transfused blood cells and rejected the transfusion, sometimes going in shock. In 1909 Landsteiner classified red blood cells into types A, B, AB and O and showed that the body rejects transfusions of a different blood type. After moving to the Rockefeller Institute in New York, Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his pioneering research in immunology and blood grouping.

  • ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn
    erythroblastosis fetalis resulting from maternal-fetal incompatibility with respect to an antigen of the ABO blood group; the fetus possesses A or B antigen (or both), that is lacking in the mother, and the mother produces immune antibody, that causes hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes.
  • abohm
    Electromagnetic unit of resistance equal to 10−9 ohm.
  • aborad
    In a direction away from the mouth; opposite of orad.
  • abort
    The expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it is viable. The removal of the products of conception prematurely. To arrest a disease in its earliest stages. To arrest any action or process before its normal completion.

    See Also: miscarry

  • aborted systole
    a loss of the systolic beat in the radial pulse through weakness of the ventricular contraction.
  • abortifacient
    Producing abortion. An agent that produces abortion.

    Alternate names: aborticide, abortient, abortigenic, abortive3

  • Abortion

    Abortion: In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregancy was lost. A spontaneous abortion is the same as a miscarriage. The miscarriage of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies is termed habitual abortion.

  • abortion rate
    the number of induced abortions per 1000 pregnancies that resulted in a live birth, stillbirth, or induced termination. the number of terminations ×1000 ÷ the female population ages of between 15 and 44 years.
  • Abortion, habitual

    Abortion, habitual: The miscarriage of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies. Recurrent abortion can be identically defined as 3 or more miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) with no intervening pregnancies. Habitual or recurrent abortion is a form of infertility.

  • Abortion, multiple

    Abortion, multiple: Couples who have had 2 or more miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) have about a 5% chance that one member of the couple is carrying a chromsome translocation responsible for the miscarriages.

  • Abortion, recurrent

    Abortion, recurrent: See Abortion, habitual.

  • abortionist
    One who performs an abortion.
  • abortive
    Not reaching completion; said of an attack of a disease subsiding before it has fully developed or completed its course.

    Alternate names: rudimentary

  • abortive transduction
    transduction in which the genetic fragment from the donor bacterium is not integrated in the genome of the recipient bacterium, and, when the latter divides, is transmitted to only one of the daughter cells.
  • abortus
    Any product (or all products) of an abortion.
  • ABP
    Abbreviation for androgen binding protein.
  • ABPA
    Abbreviation for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
  • abrachiocephaly
    Congenital absence of arms and head.

    Alternate names: acephalobrachia

  • abrade
    To wear away by mechanical action. To scrape away part or all of the surface layer from a part.
  • Abrahams sign
    earlier appreciation of abnormal pulmonary auscultatory signs over the distal clavicle than at the apex, suggesting apical tuberculosis. diminished percussive resonance over the pulmonary apex in advancing tuberculosis.
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