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  • NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)
    a flavoprotein that oxidizes NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ with quinones (menadione) as hydrogen acceptors.

    Alternate names: DT-diaphorase, menadione reductase, phylloquinone reductase, quinone reductase

  • NADPH diaphorase
  • NADPH-cytochrome c2 reductase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of two molecules of ferricytochrome c2 to two molecules of ferrocytochrome c2 at the expense of NADPH.

    Alternate names: cytochrome c2 reductase

  • NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase
    an enzyme catalyzing the reduction of 2 ferricytochrome by NADPH to 2 ferrocytochrome; the physiologic acceptor is probably cytochrome P-450; thus, it has a role in steroid hydroxylations.

    Alternate names: cytochrome reductase

  • Naegeli
  • Naegeli syndrome
    reticular skin pigmentation, diminished sweating, hypodontia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and blistering; may be confused with incontinentia pigmenti but is as common in males as in females; autosomal dominant inheritance.

    Alternate names: Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome

  • Naegleria
  • Naffziger operation
    orbital decompression for severe malignant exophthalmos by removal of the lateral and superior orbital walls.
  • Naffziger syndrome
    scalenus-anticus syndrome.
  • NAG
    Abbreviation for N-acetylglutamate.
  • nagana
    An acute or chronic disease of cattle, dogs, pigs, horses, sheep, and goats in sub-Saharan Africa; marked by fever, anemia, and cachexia, varying in severity with the parasite and the host. A collective term for diseases caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T. congolense, and T. vivax.
  • Nagel test
    a test for color vision in which the observer determines the relative amounts of red and green necessary to match spectral yellow; an instrument called a Nagel anomaloscope is used.
  • Nageotte cells
    mononuclear cells found in the cerebrospinal fluid, one or two per cubic millimeter in health, but in greater numbers in various diseases.
  • Nail

    Nail: In medicine, there are two types of nails. One is just a plain old metal nail used to hold 2 or more pieces of bone together, for example, after a fracture. The other type of nail is the horny plate on the end of the finger or toe. Each nail anatomically has a body, lateral nail folds (on the sides), a lunula (the little moon-shaped feature at the base), and a proximal skin fold (at the base).

  • Nail care

    Nail care: Many nail problems are due to poor nail care. Good nail habits help keep nails healthy. The following recommendations are designed for good nail care: Keep nails clean and dry to keep bacteria and other infectious organisms from collecting under the nails. Soak toenails that are thick and difficult to cut in warm salt water (one teaspoon of salt to a pint of water) for 5-10 minutes and apply a 10 percent urea cream(available at the drug store without a prescription) and then trim the toenails. Nails should be cut straight across and rounded only slightly at the tip. Use sharp nail scissors or clippers. Use a "fine" textured file to keep nails shaped and free of snags. Do not bite your nails. It's not good for them. Do not "dig out" ingrown toenails, especially if they are sore. Seek treatment from a doctor. Nail changes, swelling and pain can signal a serious problem. Report any nail irregularities to your doctor. These recommendations are adapted from ones of the American Academy of Dermatology.

  • Nail infection, fungal

    Nail infection, fungal: The most common fungus infection of the nails is onychomycosis. Onychomycosis makes the nails look white and opaque, thickened, and brittle. Those at increased risk for developing onychomycosis include: People with diabetes; People with disease of the small blood vessels (peripheral vascular disease); and Older women (perhaps because estrogen deficiency increases the risk of infection);and Women of any age who wear artificial nails (acrylic or "wraps"). Artificial nails increase the risk for onychomycosis because, when an artificial nail is applied, the nail surface is usually abraded with an emery board damaging it, emery boards can carry infection, and water can collect under the nail creating a moist, warm environment favorable for fungal growth. Alternative names include tinea unguium and ringworm of the nails.

  • nail matrix
    the area of the corium on which the nail rests; it is extremely sensitive and presents numerous longitudinal ridges on its surface. According to some anatomists, the nail bed is the portion covered by the body of the nail, the nail bed being only the part on which the root of the nail rests.

    Alternate names: matrix unguisTA, keratogenous membrane, nail bed, onychostroma

  • nail pits
    small punctate depressions on the surface of the nail plate due to defective nail formation; seen in psoriasis and other disorders.

    See Also: geographic stippling of nails

  • nail pulse
    a capillary pulse seen through the nail.
  • nail wall
    the fold of skin overlapping the lateral and proximal margins of the nail.

    Alternate names: vallum unguisTA, nail fold

  • Nail-patella syndrome

    Nail-patella syndrome: An hereditary condition with abnormally formed (dysplastic) or absent nails and absent or underdeveloped (hypoplastic) kneecaps (patellae). Other features include: iliac horns, abnormality of the elbows interfering with full range of motion (pronation and supination), and kidney disease resembling glomerulonephritis, which is often mild but can be progressive and lead to renal failure. Nail-patella syndrome is inherited as dominant gene. This means that the disease can be transmitted by one affected parent. The nail-patella gene locus found linked genetically to the ABO blood group in 1965 is now known to be in chromosome region 9q34. Also called Turner-Kieser syndrome, and Fong disease.

  • nailing
    Act of inserting or driving a nail into the ends of a fractured bone.
  • Nails, jogger's

    Nails, jogger's: Very common small semi-circular white spots on the nails. These spots result from injury to the base (matrix) of the nail (the part under the visible nail) where the nail cells and the nail are produced. The injury responsible for white spots on the nails can be due to athletic activity and poorly fitting shoes. For example, jogging in poorly fitting shoes causes this condition so often it is known as "jogger's nails." These spots are not a cause for concern. They eventually grow out.

  • Nails, ringworm of the

    Nails, ringworm of the: The most common fungus infection of the nails, also called onychomycosis. Onychomycosis makes the nails look white and opaque, thickened, and brittle. Those at increased risk for developing onychomycosis include: People with diabetes; People with disease of the small blood vessels (peripheral vascular disease); and Older women (perhaps because estrogen deficiency increases the risk of infection);and Women of any age who wear artificial nails (acrylic or "wraps"). Artificial nails increase the risk for onychomycosis because, when an artificial nail is applied, the nail surface is usually abraded with an emery board damaging it, emery boards can carry infection, and water can collect under the artificial nail creating a moist, warm environment favorable for fungal growth. Alternative names for ringworm of the nails include tinea unguium and dermatophytic onychomycosis.

  • Nails, white spots on the

    Nails, white spots on the: Very common small semi-circular white spots on the nails. These spots result from injury to the base (matrix) of the nail (the part under the visible nail) where the nail cells and the nail are produced. The injury responsible for white spots on the nails can be due to athletic activity and poorly fitting shoes. For example, jogging in poorly fitting shoes causes this condition so often it is known as "jogger's nails." These spots are not a cause for concern. They eventually grow out.

  • Nair buffered methylene blue stain
    stain used to show nuclear detail of protozoan trophozoites when used at low pH (3.6–4.8).
  • Nakanishi stain
    a method for vital staining of bacteria in which a slide is treated with hot methylene blue solution until it acquires a sky-blue color, after which a drop of an emulsion of the bacteria is put on the cover glass and the latter laid on the slide; the bacteria are stained differentially, some parts more intensely than others.
  • naked virus
    a virus consisting only of a nucleocapsid (one that does not possess an enclosing envelope).
  • nakedness
    gymnophobia.
  • nalidixic acid
    An orally effective antibacterial agent used in the treatment of genitourinary tract infections.
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