Overview & Description
Artificial insemination, or AI, is a procedure that is used to help an
infertile woman become pregnant. Infertility is a disorder in which a woman is
unable to become pregnant through sexual intercourse. In AI, sperm from a man
is injected into a woman's cervix, uterus, fallopian tube, or ovarian follicle.
Who is a candidate for the procedure?
Artificial insemination is recommended when a woman has been unable to conceive
for more than a year. Artificial insemination may be used if:
the sperm are not able to survive in the cervix because the mucus destroys
the woman's cervical mucus does not allow the sperm to be mobile
there are problems with the shape and structure of the woman's body,
making it difficult to conceive
there are problems with the sperm, including a low sperm count or low
motility, the speed at which the sperm move toward the uterus
there is no apparent reason for the infertility in the man or
To be a candidate for this procedure, a woman must have fallopian tubes that
are in good condition. They must also be working properly. The tubes should be
free of any disease and should not be blocked.
How is the procedure performed?
There are several steps in AI before, during, and after the actual procedure.
Before the AI procedure, a fertility medicine may be used to stimulate the
production and maturation of the eggs. This also helps prepare the reproductive
system for fertilization. The fertility medicines are often taken for about 7
days before the woman normally ovulates.
The woman will be monitored carefully while she is taking fertility medicines.
This includes ultrasound scans and blood tests to check her hormone levels.
Fertility medicines also increase the chance of having a multiple pregnancy,
that is, twins, triplets, or more. This means the pregnancy is a higher
The healthcare provider will help the woman find out when she ovulates. A woman
can do this by checking her body temperature every day and noting any vaginal
discharge. Ultrasound can also help determine when a woman is ovulating.
The location used for sperm injection depends on the
cause of the infertility. There are several types of AI, such as:
intracervical, in which the sperm is injected at the cervix, which is the
opening to the uterus
intrafollicular, in which the sperm is injected into the ovarian
intratubal, in which the sperm is injected into the fallopian tubes
intrauterine, in which the sperm is injected into the uterus
The AI procedure is done in a healthcare provider's office or clinic several
days before the woman begins to ovulate. Sperm from the woman's partner or
sperm from a donor is used. The sperm is collected on the day of the procedure.
Depending on the type of AI being done, the sperm may undergo a special
so-called washing. This prepares it to be placed into the body. This also makes
it more concentrated for fertilization.
A woman is positioned as for a pelvic exam, with her feet up. A speculum
will be inserted into the vagina, as in a pelvic exam. Next, the sperm will be
drawn into a plastic syringe. A catheter, or thin tube, is attached to the
syringe and is moved into the appropriate location. The sperm is then injected
into the cervix, uterus, fallopian tube, or ovarian follicle. This procedure is
usually painless. The entire process may take from 45 minutes to a few hours.
Preparation & Expectations
What happens right after the procedure?
Usually the provider will have the woman lie still for about 30 to 45 minutes
with her legs elevated. Often a cervical cap will be put over the cervix to
hold the sperm in place for several hours. The cap is removed later that day.
Next, the woman can usually go home and resume normal activities. Pregnancy
testing will be done. If conception has taken place, the pregnancy
will be monitored closely.
Home Care and Complications
What are the potential complications after the procedure?
A possible complication of AI is a risk of having a multiple pregnancy. A
multiple pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage or low-birth-weight
babies. When too high a dose of fertility medicine is used, the ovaries can
become overstimulated and cause
abdominal pain. Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to
the healthcare provider.