Yes, here is some more info.The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body including glycogen storage, plasma protein synthesis, and drug detoxification. This organ also is the largest gland in the human body. It lies below the diaphragm in the thoracic region of the abdomen. It produces bile an alkaline compound which aids in digestion. It also performs and regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions requiring specialized tissues.
Medical terms related to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for liver, hÄ“par
The adult human liver normally weighs between 1.7 - 3.0 kilograms (3.7 - 6.5 pounds), and it is a soft, pinkish-brown "boomerang shaped" organ. It is the second largest organ (the largest organ being the skin) and the largest gland within the human body.
It is located on the right side of the upper abdomen body diaphragm. The liver lies on the right of the stomach and makes a kind of bed for the gallbladder (which stores bile).
Flow of blood
The splenic vein, joins with the inferior mesenteric vein, which then together join with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein, bringing venous blood from the spleen, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine, so that the liver can process the nutrients and byproducts of food digestion.
The hepatic veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava.
The hepatic artery is generally a branch from the celiac trunk, although occasionally some or all of the blood can be from other branches such as the superior mesenteric artery.
Approximately 3/4 of the blood flow to the liver is from the portal venous system, and 1/4 is from the hepatic artery.
Flow of bile
The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, which merge to form bile ducts.
These eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which in turn merge to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct (from the gallbladder) joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct.
Bile can either drain directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct or be temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the cystic duct. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the duodenum together at the ampulla of Vater.
The branchings of the bile ducts resemble those of a tree, and indeed the term "biliary tree" is commonly used in this setting.
The liver is among the few internal human organs capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue; as little as 25% of remaining liver can regenerate into a whole liver again.
This is predominantly due to the hepatocytes acting as unipotential stem cells (i.e. a single hepatocyte can divide into two hepatocyte daughter cells). There is also some evidence of bipotential stem cells, called oval cells, which can differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes (cells that line the bile ducts).
Apart from a patch where it connects to the diaphragm, the liver is covered entirely by visceral peritoneum, a thin, double-layered membrane that reduces friction against other organs. The peritoneum folds back on itself to form the falciform ligament and the right and left triangular ligaments.
These "ligaments" are in no way related to the true anatomic ligaments in joints, and have essentially no functional importance, but they are easily recognizable surface landmarks.
Traditional gross anatomy divided the liver into four lobes based on surface features.
The falciform ligament is visible on the front (anterior side) of the liver. This divides the liver into a left anatomical lobe, and a right anatomical lobe.
If the liver is flipped over, to look at it from behind (the visceral surface), there are two additional lobes between the right and left. These are the caudate lobe (the more superior), and below this the quadrate lobe.
From behind, the lobes are divided up by the ligamentum venosum and ligamentum teres (anything left of these is the left lobe), the transverse fissure (or porta hepatis) divides the caudate from the quadrate lobe, and the right sagittal fossa, which the inferior vena cava runs over, separates these two lobes from the right lobe.
Modern (Functional) anatomy
The central area where the common bile duct, portal vein, and hepatic artery enter the liver is the hilum or "porta hepatis". The duct, vein, and artery divide into left and right branches, and the portions of the liver supplied by these branches constitute the functional left and right lobes.
The functional lobes are separated by a plane joining the gallbladder fossa to the inferior vena cava. This separates the liver into the true right and left lobes. The middle hepatic vein also demarcates the true right and left lobes. The right lobe is further divided into an anterior and posterior segment by the right hepatic vein. The left lobe is divided into the medial and lateral segments by the left hepatic vein. The fissure for the ligamentum teres (the ligamentum teres becomes the falciform ligament) also separates the medial and lateral segmants. The medial segment is what used to be called the quadrate lobe. In the widely used Couinaud or "French" system, the functional lobes are further divided into a total of eight subsegments based on a transverse plane through the bifurcation of the main portal vein. The caudate lobe is a separate structure which receives blood flow from both the right- and left-sided vascular branches. The subsegments corresponding to the anatomical lobes are as follows:
The various functions of the liver are carried out by the liver cells or hepatocytes.
The liver produces and excretes bile (a greenish liquid) required for emulsifying fats. Some of the bile drains directly into the duodenum, and some is stored in the gallbladder.
The liver performs several roles in carbohydrate metabolism:
Gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids, lactate or glycerol)
Glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen into glucose) (muscle tissues can also do this)
Glycogenesis (the formation of glycogen from glucose)
The breakdown of insulin and other hormones
The liver is responsible for the mainstay of protein metabolism.
The liver also performs several roles in lipid metabolism:
The production of triglycerides (fats).
The liver produces coagulation factors I (fibrinogen), II (prothrombin), V, VII, IX, X and XI, as well as protein C, protein S and antithrombin.
The liver breaks down haemoglobin, creating metabolites that are added to bile as pigment (bilirubin and biliverdin).
The liver breaks down toxic substances and most medicinal products in a process called drug metabolism. This sometimes results in toxication, when the metabolite is more toxic than its precursor.
The liver converts ammonia to urea.
The liver stores a multitude of substances, including glucose in the form of glycogen, vitamin B12, iron, and copper.
In the first trimester fetus, the liver is the main site of red blood cell production. By the 32nd week of gestation, the bone marrow has almost completely taken over that task.
The liver is responsible for immunological effects- the reticuloendothelial system of the liver contains many immunologically active cells, acting as a 'sieve' for antigens carried to it via the portal system.
Currently, there is no artificial organ or device capable of emulating all the functions of the liver. Some functions can be emulated by liver dialysis, an experimental treatment for liver failure.
Diseases of the liver
Many diseases of the liver are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile.
Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons, autoimmunity or hereditary conditions.
Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver, replacing dead liver cells. The death of the liver cells can for example be caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholism or contact with other liver-toxic chemicals.
Hemochromatosis, a hereditary disease causing the accumulation of iron in the body, eventually leading to liver damage.
Cancer of the liver (primary hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic cancers, usually from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract).
Wilson's disease, a hereditary disease which causes the body to retain copper.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis, an inflammatory disease of the bile duct, autoimmune in nature.
Primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune disease of small bile ducts
Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic vein.
Gilbert's syndrome, a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism, found in about 5% of the population.
Glycogen storage disease type II,The build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and nervous system.
There are also many pediatric liver disease, including biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, alagille syndrome, and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, to name but a few.
A number of liver function tests are available to test the proper function of the liver. These test for the presence of enzymes in blood that are normally most abundant in liver tissue, metabolites or products.